We need antibiotics that work

DR BRUCE WARNER AND ELIZABETH BEECH | November 16, 2015

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n the first of a series of blogs to mark World Antibiotic Awareness Week, the Deputy Chief Pharmaceutical Officer and NHS England’s Healthcare Acquired Infection and Antimicrobial Resistance Lead outline the changes they are making: Dr Bruce Warner: Antibiotics have become a fundamental tool in a pharmacist’s armoury for treating disease, but one that we have started to take for granted.

Spotlight

Craig Hospital

Craig Hospital in Denver is a world-renowned private non-profit catastrophic injury care hospital exclusively specializing in the long term acute care and rehabilitation and research of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year patients come to Craig from virtually all 50 states. Craig has been ranked in the Top Ten Rehabilitation Hospitals by US News and World Report for 23 consecutive years since the ratings began in 1990. Craig is federally-designated as a NIDRR Model Systems Center for SCI and TBI, is the National NIDRR TBI Statistical Database Center. Craig was awarded the prestigious Magnet® Recognition in 2005 and 2010, received the ANA NDNQI® #1 Rehabilitation Award for Nursing Quality in 2011, was awarded Colorado's Outstanding Non-Profit Health Care Organization in 2011 by the El Pomar Foundation, #3 Best Work Place in 2011 by the Denver Post, and received the Magnet® Prize Award in 2012.

OTHER ARTICLES

The innovations bridging health sciences and business in 2020

Article | March 10, 2020

The decade’s first global health crisis has placed the spotlight on the need for healthcare technology that can prevent and solve the world’s critical health challenges. This last week, Microsoft shared progress on innovations helping to meet these objectives. Today, we’re spotlighting intelligent health and business solutions from Microsoft Business Applications that empower health providers to help transform operations and deliver better patient experiences, better insights, and better care. Healthcare organizations are leveraging Dynamics 365 and Microsoft Power Platform to improve both provider operations and patient outcomes. These customers are prime examples of our focus to enable tech intensity across healthcare, empowering organizations to develop their own digital capabilities that use data and AI to address challenges and tackle new opportunities. Across healthcare, quality of care is increasingly dependent on synchronizing operations across staff to gain greater efficiencies and accelerate decision-making.

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Can New Technology Drive Health Care’s Future?

Article | March 10, 2020

Over the past twenty-five years most businesses have been revolutionized by the easy availability of cloud and mobile-based computing systems. These technologies have placed power and access into the hands of employees and customers, which in turn has created huge shifts in how transactions get done. Now the companies with the highest market value are both the drivers of and beneficiaries of this transition, notably Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Alphabet (Google), as well as their international rivals like Samsung, Baidu, Tencent and Alibaba. Everyone uses their products every day, and the impact on our lives have been remarkable. Of course, this also impacts how businesses of all types are organized. Underpinning this transformation has been a change from enterprise-specific software to generic cloud-based services—sometimes called SMAC (Social/Sensors/Mobile/Analytics/Cloud). Applications such as data storage, sales management, email and the hardware they ran on were put into enterprises during the 80s and 90s in the client-server era (dominated by Intel and Microsoft). These have now migrated to cloud-based, on-demand services.

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FUTURE OF HEALTHCARE

Blockchain in the Healthcare Industry

Article | March 10, 2020

Prioritizing health and managing it, has become highly important because our lifestyle is continuously evolving in ways that take a toll on us mentally, physically, and emotionally. However, the major issue for the patients lies in the inaccuracy of treatment due to the lack of complete health records in any hospital. With the recent changes in privacy legislation and data management, patients are even unable to retrieve their own health records. For example, someone had an accident and was taken to the emergency room. The first thing they will need to do in their condition is to fill the hospital’s form. Then, for the treatment, if the injured person is conscious enough, doctors ask questions like if they are allergic to some medicines or do they suffer from diabetes or any other disease. Besides, what if the individual denies having allergies or diabetes in their half-conscious state? And the previous hospitals where they have already had treatment before have denied sharing the medical details of the person either due to privacy issues or data corruption. Well, it can create a lot of fuzz. Solely, to improve the health industry without compromising the security of the individuals, blockchain has remained in the discussion. It has the potential to address the operability challenges present in the healthcare industry. But, what is blockchain, what are its underlying fundamentals, why blockchain, and what are its advantages? Today’s blog will help in understanding every aspect of blockchain and its impact on the healthcare industry. So let’s get started! What is Blockchain? Blockchain is a P2P or peer-to-peer distributed or decentralized ledger technology. It stores a chain of data called blocks of information. These blocks are chained together by cryptographic signatures. These signatures are called hash that is stored in the shared ledger and backed by a connected processes network - node. These nodes reserve a copy of the complete chain and get continually updated by synchronization. Though, to include blockchain in the process it’s necessary to hire a developer who has prior experience and knowledge about its architecture and can work with the components efficiently as blockchain is a designed pattern that consists of three major constituents - a distributed network, a shared ledger, and all the digital transactions. a. Distributed Network As discussed before, blockchain is built on peer-to-peer networks. While having no central point of storage, it makes the information on the network less vulnerable to being lost or exploited. Unlike the traditional client-server model that has a centralized storage point or controlling party, all the information in the blockchain network is constantly recorded and transferred to the participants of the network that are also known as nodes or peers. These peers also own several identical copies of the information. That’s why blockchain is seen as a huge improvement to centralized models and is considered the future of data storage and ownership. b. Shared Ledger Each authorized participant in the network records the transactions into the shared ledger. If they want to add any transaction, it is important to run algorithms that evaluate and verify the transactions. If the majority of members agree to the transaction’s validity, a new transaction gets added to the shared ledger. The changes done in the shared ledger is reflected in minutes or even seconds in the copies of the blockchain. Once the transaction is added, there’s no way to modify or delete it. Also, as the copy is shared in the form of a ledger to each member, no single member can alter data. c. Digital Transaction Transactions are information i.e. data transmission to one block. During the process of data transmission, each node acts as a central point to generate and digitally sign the transaction. As the nodes connect each other in the network, each of them has to verify the transaction independently for its conflicts, validity, and compliance. Only after the transaction passes the verification, the information is added into the shared ledger. The major element that makes digital transactions successful is cryptographic hashing that encrypts the data for security. Why Blockchain technology in healthcare? It has happened so often that the patient remains unable to gather all of their previous medical records in one format from one place swiftly or sometimes cannot even collect the required information at all. Unfortunately, in most cases, the information of critical patients remains scattered across several different institutions of healthcare that too in different formats. Besides, the data management systems along with the security regulations also vary in different institutions making it difficult to trace and fix mistakes. But, what can blockchain do? A blockchain is a system used for storing and sharing information with security and transparency. Every block in the chain is an independent unit of its own and a dependent link among the collective chain that creates a network controlled by participants rather than a third party. As blockchains are managed by network nodes instead of central authority, they are decentralized that prevents one entity from having complete control over the network. With the incorporation of blockchain, the need for a central administrator will be removed by cryptography. Healthcare providers will be able to promote data management processes beyond perception. It will help in collecting, analyzing, sharing, and securing medical records. It will provide the access to healthcare workers for retrieving health records with the cryptographic keys provided by patients from anywhere without creating any privacy or security problems. Advantages of Healthcare Blockchain Although applications of blockchain in the healthcare industry are inceptive, some early solutions have shown the possibility of reduced healthcare costs, improved access to information among different stakeholders, and streamlining the entire business process. So, keeping aside the buzz, let’s see the real advantages of blockchain in healthcare. 1. Master Patient Indexes The master patient index helps in the identification of patients across separate administrative systems. It is often created within the EHR or electronic health record system. As these EHRs have different vendors, there are several irregularities of MPIs. In many cases, the data of a patient between these healthcare systems become mismatched. However, with the nature of decentralization in Blockchain, it possesses the ability to solve the issue. In the blockchain-based MPIs, the data will be hashed to the ledger and content will remain unique as only the authorized nodes of the data can make changes to the hashes while all parties with access can only check the related information. 2. Single, elongated patient records Blockchain technology is potent to transform health care by placing patients at the center of the system while increasing the security and privacy of health records. It provides a new model for health information exchange by forming electronic elongated patient records secured and efficient. Additionally, the fact that the data is copied among all the nodes of the blockchain network creates an atmosphere of clarity and transparency that enables healthcare providers and patients to know how their data is handled by whom, how, and when. It can also help healthcare from potential frauds, data losses, or security attacks. 3. Supply Chain Management Supply chain management in healthcare is a challenging aspect. With scattered settings for ordering drugs, medical supplies, and critical resources, there’s an inherent risk of compromising the supply chain that might impact patient safety. Indulgence of blockchain technology in the transactions can tap into the complete process of medicine or drug products movement. As all the transactions will be recorded onto the shared ledger with every block recording and maintaining every transaction, it will become easy to verify the vendor, distributor, and origin of the drug within a matter of seconds. It will also enable healthcare physicians and officials to check the authenticity of the supplier’s credentials. 4. Claims Justification Currently, the insurance claim processes face difficulties like lack of transparency i.e. most customers don’t even know how insurance works; human errors and inefficiencies i.e. insurances are full of confusion along with human errors that create inefficiencies that lead to the increased cost to customers; higher frauds in claims. But, blockchain technology can simplify and enhance recordkeeping, payment processing, claims registration, contract management, and closure with its immutable ledger. 5. Interoperability Interoperability is the capability of distinct healthcare information technology to interpret, exchange, and use data. Due to the privacy issues, the alphanumeric code to identify a patient has been revoked that caused problems in gathering the required record of the patient. Enforcing measurement standards for industry-wide interoperability is also a challenge in interoperability. With blockchain in healthcare interoperability, data can be shared in real-time on the trusted network and provides access to the patient’s record in a secured manner. Moreover, with the pri

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Changing the Pharma and Healthcare Landscape

Article | March 10, 2020

Despite the data explosion in the past 10-15 years, this has largely been “data unrealized” – its value has not been exploited. Subsequent investments in data integration strategies, technology, and analytics have transformed a medley of free-floating data points into an integrated, coherent message. Pharma has leveraged data integration across the value chain, from discovery through development to commercialization. Healthcare is also leveraging data integration strategies to drive value-based healthcare models. The integration of this data has created the opportunity to delve deep into the real world and generate meaningful insights, optimize patient recruitment, develop a better understanding of various therapeutics, and directly improve patient outcomes.

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Spotlight

Craig Hospital

Craig Hospital in Denver is a world-renowned private non-profit catastrophic injury care hospital exclusively specializing in the long term acute care and rehabilitation and research of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year patients come to Craig from virtually all 50 states. Craig has been ranked in the Top Ten Rehabilitation Hospitals by US News and World Report for 23 consecutive years since the ratings began in 1990. Craig is federally-designated as a NIDRR Model Systems Center for SCI and TBI, is the National NIDRR TBI Statistical Database Center. Craig was awarded the prestigious Magnet® Recognition in 2005 and 2010, received the ANA NDNQI® #1 Rehabilitation Award for Nursing Quality in 2011, was awarded Colorado's Outstanding Non-Profit Health Care Organization in 2011 by the El Pomar Foundation, #3 Best Work Place in 2011 by the Denver Post, and received the Magnet® Prize Award in 2012.

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